SNAP Methods:

Potential SNAP applicants often rely on SNAP websites to find eligibility information, enrollment instructions, and accommodation options. This dashboard ranks the accessibility and accommodation information located on SNAP websites. The SNAP Scoring and Information pages include additional information.

Data was collected from SNAP information and enrollment webpages from all 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and New York City from June through August of 2021. These SNAP webpages were obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) State Directory. In cases where the USDA link was broken, researchers searched for the “[LOCATION] snap program” and used the first result.

Based on key principles of universal design and accessibility, scoring included three areas:

  • Flexibility of SNAP Enrollment Options (6 points maximum): Scores were determined by the total number of modalities available for enrolling in SNAP. One point was assigned for each of the following enrollment methods: in-person, online, email, mail, telephone, and TTY. To receive credit, the method had to be clearly listed as an option on the SNAP landing or enrollment page. For all modalities except in-person enrollment, one point was given if the method was state-provided, and one-half point was given if the method required looking up information for one’s local jurisdiction. On the other hand, in-person enrollment by local jurisdiction received a full point, as physical proximity is prioritized here.
  • Efficiency of SNAP Enrollment (6 points maximum): Scores were determined based on ease of access to SNAP eligibility information, application forms, customer support, and information about accommodations for applicants with disabilities. One point was assigned for each of the following items found on the SNAP landing page or a directly linked webpage: (1) eligibility information; (2) links to both online and PDF enrollment forms (one-half point if only one was available); (3) large-print PDF enrollment form; (4) phone number for SNAP customer support (one-half point if not SNAP-specific, but still customer-facing); (5) TTY number for SNAP customer support; (6) state-provided accommodations and specific instructions for requesting them.
  • Accessibility of SNAP Websites (6 points maximum): Scores were determined based on an automated accessibility assessment score and a high-level manual accessibility assessment score of both the SNAP landing page and registration pages. These data were normalized to the WebAIM Million sample of one million homepages to indicate how the tested website compares to web pages generally across the web. The overall accessibility values were the average of the automated scores and manual scores for each SNAP program. Accessibility scores were based on tertiles of these total values, as follows: the lowest tertile (values below 4.3) received 0 points, the middle tertile (values at or above 4.3 and below 7.0) received 3 points, and the highest tertile (values of 7.0 or above) received 6 points.

The total SNAP score was calculated as the sum of the sub-scores across all three areas outlined above. A total of 18 points was possible. Higher scores indicate more accessible SNAP websites and more disability-inclusive SNAP enrollment information and processes.

Table 2. Flexibility of SNAP Enrollment Scores Across the United States, 2021

wdt_ID State Flexibility Score Rank Flexibility in SNAP Enrollment Score (6 pts max) In-Person Enrollment Online Enrollment Email Enrollment Mail Enrollment Telephone Enrollment TTY Enrollment
1 Alabama 20 2.5 1 1 0 0.5 0 0
2 Alaska 13 3.0 1 0 0 0 1 1
3 Arizona 20 2.5 1 1 0 0.5 0 0
4 Arkansas 20 2.5 1 1 0 0.5 0 0
5 California 3 4.0 1 1 0 0 1 1
6 Colorado 9 3.5 1 1 0 0.5 1 0
7 Connecticut 3 4.0 1 1 0 1 1 0
8 Delaware 20 2.5 1 1 0 0.5 0 0
9 District of Columbia 20 2.5 1 1 0 0.5 0 0
10 Florida 13 3.0 1 1 0 1 0 0
11 Georgia 2 4.5 1 1 0 0.5 1 1
12 Hawaii 20 2.5 1 1 0 0.5 0 0
13 Idaho 3 4.0 1 0 1 1 1 0
14 Illinois 20 2.5 1 1 0 0.5 0 0
15 Indiana 48 1.0 0 1 0 0 0 0
16 Iowa 20 2.5 1 1 0 0.5 0 0
17 Kansas 48 1.0 0 1 0 0 0 0
18 Kentucky 3 4.0 1 1 0 0 1 1
19 Louisiana 1 5.0 1 1 0 1 1 1
20 Maine 13 3.0 0 1 1 1 0 0
21 Maryland 20 2.5 1 1 0 0.5 0 0
22 Massachusetts 3 4.0 1 1 0 1 1 0
23 Michigan 20 2.5 1 1 0 0.5 0 0
24 Minnesota 9 3.5 1 1 0 1 0.5 0
25 Mississippi 20 2.5 1 1 0 0.5 0 0
State Flexibility Score Rank Flexibility in SNAP Enrollment Score (6 pts max) In-Person Enrollment Online Enrollment Email Enrollment Mail Enrollment Telephone Enrollment TTY Enrollment

Table 3. Efficiency of SNAP Enrollment Scores Across the United States, 2021

wdt_ID State Efficiency Score Rank Efficiency of SNAP Enrollment Score (6 pts max) Enrollment Accommodations Direct Link to Eligibility Information Enrollment Form Location Helpline TTY Helpline Direct Link to Large Print Enrollment Form
1 Alabama 32 2.5 0 1 1 0.5 0 0
2 Alaska 43 2.0 0 0 0 1 1 0
3 Arizona 24 3.0 0 1 1 1 0 0
4 Arkansas 43 2.0 0 0 1 0 1 0
5 California 32 2.5 0 0 0.5 1 1 0
6 Colorado 3 5.0 0 1 1 1 1 1
7 Connecticut 11 4.0 0 1 1 1 1 0
8 Delaware 32 2.5 0 1 0.5 0 1 0
9 District of Columbia 11 4.0 0 1 1 1 1 0
10 Florida 21 3.5 0 1 0.5 1 1 0
11 Georgia 1 6.0 1 1 1 1 1 1
12 Hawaii 24 3.0 0 1 1 1 0 0
13 Idaho 50 1.5 0 0 0.5 1 0 0
14 Illinois 11 4.0 0 1 1 1 1 0
15 Indiana 21 3.5 1 1 0.5 1 0 0
16 Iowa 43 2.0 0 1 0 0 1 0
17 Kansas 32 2.5 0 0 0.5 1 1 0
18 Kentucky 3 5.0 1 1 1 1 1 0
19 Louisiana 11 4.0 0 1 1 1 1 0
20 Maine 24 3.0 0 0 1 1 1 0
21 Maryland 21 3.5 0 1 1 0.5 1 0
22 Massachusetts 32 2.5 0 1 0.5 1 0 0
23 Michigan 32 2.5 1 1 0.5 0 0 0
24 Minnesota 32 2.5 0 1 1 0.5 0 0
25 Mississippi 24 3.0 0 1 1 1 0 0
State Efficiency Score Rank Efficiency of SNAP Enrollment Score (6 pts max) Enrollment Accommodations Direct Link to Eligibility Information Enrollment Form Location Helpline TTY Helpline Direct Link to Large Print Enrollment Form

Table 4. Accessibility of SNAP Website Scores Across the United States, 2021

wdt_ID State Accessibility Score Rank SNAP Website Accessibility Score (6 pts max) SNAP Website Accessibility Value Automated Accessibility Score Manual Accessibility Score
1 Alabama 32 3.0 5.30 5.20 5.30
2 Alaska 1 6.0 8.10 8.00 8.10
3 Arizona 1 6.0 7.50 7.30 7.70
4 Arkansas 32 3.0 6.50 6.90 6.10
5 California 1 6.0 7.50 8.90 6.00
6 Colorado 1 6.0 9.30 8.80 9.70
7 Connecticut 1 6.0 7.30 6.70 7.80
8 DC 32 3.0 6.60 6.10 7.10
9 Delaware 32 3.0 6.90 7.10 6.60
10 Florida 1 6.0 7.00 7.10 6.90
11 Georgia 1 6.0 8.40 8.10 8.70
12 Hawaii 1 6.0 7.00 6.50 7.40
13 Idaho 32 3.0 6.00 6.60 5.30
14 Illinois 1 6.0 7.50 7.10 7.90
15 Indiana 1 6.0 8.40 8.20 8.50
16 Iowa 32 3.0 6.80 6.80 6.80
17 Kansas 1 6.0 7.60 6.90 8.30
18 Kentucky 1 6.0 8.40 8.90 7.90
19 Louisiana 51 0.0 3.90 0.70 7.10
20 Maine 1 6.0 8.40 8.40 8.40
21 Maryland 32 3.0 5.70 5.40 5.90
22 Massachusetts 1 6.0 8.00 7.50 8.40
23 Michigan 1 6.0 7.50 6.50 8.50
24 Minnesota 32 3.0 6.80 7.00 6.50
25 Mississippi 32 3.0 6.90 7.20 6.50
State Accessibility Score Rank SNAP Website Accessibility Score (6 pts max) SNAP Website Accessibility Value Automated Accessibility Score Manual Accessibility Score

Limitations:

These scores are limited to data collected from SNAP webpages, as this is the information available to potential applicants, but there may be additional barriers found throughout the SNAP enrollment process. We did not create new SNAP application accounts or initiate an online application to obtain data. Additional information about SNAP enrollment accessibility and accommodations may be available after an account is created or subsequent steps of the enrollment process. In addition, there may be barriers encountered in the SNAP recertification or during administrative tasks, such as address changes, which were not evaluated in this project. Additional data is still needed to provide the full picture of disability inclusion and accessibility throughout the SNAP enrollment process. State SNAP webpages may change over time. URLs that were scored and ranked previously may no longer be included in the current ranking if the website URL has been changed.

Citation

Citation for this data, figures, or graphs from this dashboard: The Johns Hopkins Disability Health Research Center SNAP Dashboard. https://disabilityhealth.jhu.edu

Contact Information

If you have questions or need the data in an alternate accessible format, you can contact us at disabilityhealth@jhu.edu.

To see if you qualify for SNAP, please contact your local SNAP office.

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